Contextual and Comparative  Analysis of Constitutionalism and  Political Culture on Elections: Kenya  and Zimbabwe 

Evident among most African countries is the fact that elites amend the Constitution to reserve
for themselves unfettered discretion on public affairs. In spite of existing laws, control over public
meetings, processions, security and licensing procedures of political parties has continued to erode
the values of constitutionalism in most African countries elections.
— Kennedy M. Maranga, "Contextual and Comparative Analysis of Constitutionalism and Political Culture on Elections: Kenya and Zimbabwe"


Dr. Kennedy M. Maranga’s professional experiences include working as an attorney, professor, policy analyst and president of a nonprofit organization. He has taught at Washington University in St. Louis, Indiana Wesleyan University, Park University, Colorado Technical University, Grand Canyon University and the University of Phoenix. Maranga holds a Ph.D, Masters in Law, Master of Science in Education Leadership, Bachelor of laws, and Bachelor of Social Legislation.


The influence of a Constitution in an electoral system may seem obvious,
but sometimes it is not. Sometimes there are tensions between the
principles underpinning an electoral process such as the promotion of
majority rule, giving a voice for minorities, inclusiveness, the promotion of
a stable government, freedom of expression, assembly, the free press and
political culture. This paper examines the concept of constitutionalism and
political culture in Kenya and Zimbabwe as it relates to the electoral
process. [...]

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